Two Egyptians dwelling in exile had their iPhones compromised in June 2021 using Predator adware constructed by North Macedonian developer Cytrox (The Citizen Lab)

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Key Findings

  • two egyptians iphones june predator north, Two Egyptians—exiled politician Ayman Nour and the host of a most popular data program (who wants to remain anonymous)—have been hacked with Predator adware, constructed and purchased by the beforehand little-known mercenary adware developer Cytrox.
  • The cellphone of Ayman Nour was concurrently contaminated with every Cytrox’s Predator and NSO Group’s Pegasus adware, operated by two completely totally different authorities consumers.
  • Every targets have been hacked with Predator in June 2021, and the adware was ready to contaminate the then-latest mannequin (14.6) of Apple’s iOS working system using single-click hyperlinks despatched by means of WhatsApp.
  • We obtained samples of Predator’s “loader,” the first part of the adware, and analyzed their efficiency. We found that Predator persists after reboot using the iOS automations perform.
  • We carried out Net scanning for Predator adware servers and positioned seemingly Predator prospects in Armenia, Egypt, Greece, Indonesia, Madagascar, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and Serbia.
  • Cytrox was reported to be part of Intellexa, the so-called “Star Alliance of adware,” which was long-established to compete with NSO Group, and which describes itself as “EU-based and managed, with six web sites and R&D labs all by means of Europe.”

1. Background

We confirmed the hacking of the devices of two folks with Cytrox’s Predator adware: Ayman Nour, a member of the Egyptian political opposition dwelling in exile in Turkey, and an Egyptian exiled journalist who hosts a most popular data program and wishes to remain anonymous.

Ayman Nour is the president of the Egyptian political opposition group Union of the Egyptian Nationwide Forces. Nour generally is a former Egyptian presidential candidate and founder and chairperson of the Ghad al-Thawra celebration.

In 2005, Nour ran in direction of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. After the election, Nour was convicted of “forging signatures on petitions” filed to create his political celebration—a value which was broadly considered to be “politically impressed”—and imprisoned for higher than 4 years. Nour was lastly launched from jail in 2009 on nicely being grounds and after worldwide pressure.

Nour was a candidate of the Ghad Al-Thawra celebration inside the 2012 Egyptian presidential elections. He was excluded from the elections along with various totally different opposition candidates. In 2013, after opposing President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi’s navy coup, Nour fled Egypt for Lebanon. In 2015, the Egyptian embassy in Lebanon declined to renew his passport and Nour departed Lebanon for Turkey, the place he has resided since 2015. He stays a vocal critic of Sisi’s regime, describing his authorities as an “oppressive navy regime.” He has moreover accused Sisi’s authorities of “extreme human rights violations” and of turning the nation proper right into a “completely autocratic state.”

The second objective whose cellphone we confirmed was hacked with Cytrox’s Predator adware is an Egyptian exiled journalist and an outspoken critic of the Sisi regime. This objective has chosen to remain anonymous.

1.1. Enter: Cytrox

Primarily based in 2017, Cytrox’s enterprise train is blandly described in Crunchbase as providing governments with an “operational cyber decision” that options gathering information from devices and cloud corporations. In Pitchbook, their know-how is printed as “cyber intelligence strategies designed to produce security” to governments and assist with “designing, managing and implementing cyber intelligence gathering inside the group, enabling corporations to assemble intelligence from every end devices along with from cloud corporations.”

Decide 1: The symbol of Cytrox from a North Macedonian job postings website. Provide.

Cytrox reportedly began life as a North Macedonian start-up.

A consider of firm registry paperwork reveals that Cytrox appears to have an organization presence in Israel and Hungary.

Cytrox’s Israeli corporations have been primarily based in 2017 as Cytrox EMEA Ltd. and Cytrox Software program program Ltd. Possibly taking an online web page from Candiru’s firm obfuscation playbook, every of those corporations have been renamed in 2019 to Balinese Ltd. and Peterbald Ltd., respectively. We moreover observed one entity in Hungary, Cytrox Holdings Zrt, which was moreover long-established in 2017.

Decide 2: Cytrox CEO Ivo Malinkovksi sporting a “Additional Money” shirt, and mimicking the quilt of Apple co-founder Steve Jobs’ biography. Provide.

On the time of writing, we think about that Cytrox’s CEO is Ivo Malinkovksi, as mentioned on his LinkedIn net web page. Notably, Malinkovksi’s now-private Instagram account contains a 2019 image of him in entrance of the Pyramids of Giza in Egypt.

A 2019 report in Forbes states that Cytrox was “rescued” by Tal Dilian, a former Israel Defence Forces (IDF) Unit 81 commander, whose agency WiSpear (which appears to have been renamed Passitora Ltd.) depends in Limassol, Cyprus and reportedly acquired Cytrox in 2018 in accordance to the Atooro Fund. Dilian can be known as the founder of Circles, a distinguished cell group surveillance agency. In December 2020, the Citizen Lab revealed an investigation into Circles’ authorities consumers. Dilian may be the founder and CEO of Intellexa.

1.2. Cytrox, a Part of the “Intellexa Alliance”

The subsequent half is not going to be a whole accounting of the connection between Cytrox and totally different entities. It is based on a consider of a combination of media tales and a nonexhaustive consider of agency registries all through quite a few jurisdictions. Additional evaluation into Intellexa and the companies that kind this promoting alliance might in all probability current useful notion into how enterprise surveillance corporations make use of superior enterprise constructions and use measures that obfuscate their operations.

Cytrox is part of the so-called “Intellexa alliance,” a promoting label for a wide range of mercenary surveillance distributors that emerged in 2019. The consortium of corporations comprises Nexa Utilized sciences (beforehand Amesys), WiSpear/Passitora Ltd., Cytrox, and Senpai, along with totally different unnamed entities, purportedly searching for to compete in direction of totally different avid gamers inside the cyber surveillance market just like NSO Group and Verint.

Initially based in Cyprus, a newest report signifies that Intellexa now operates from Greece, which may be listed as a result of the LinkedIn location of its founder, Dilian. A preliminary consider of firm registry documentation signifies that the alliance has an organization presence in not solely Greece (Intellexa S.A.), however as well as in Ireland (Intellexa Restricted).

The Dun & Bradstreet entry for Intellexa S.A. and Intellexa Restricted phrase Sara-Aleksandra Fayssal Hamou (or Sara Hamou) as a key principal in every corporations. Hamou is reportedly Dilian’s second partner.

In our preliminary evaluation, the exact hyperlink between Cytrox and Intellexa, along with totally different corporations inside the “alliance,” stays murky at biggest. In reviewing filings inside the Israeli enterprise registry, we observed a 2020 swap of all shares held by Cytrox Holdings Zrt (Hungary) in Cytrox EMEA Ltd./Balinese Ltd. (Israel) to Aliada Group Inc., an entity registered inside the British Virgin Islands (registration no. 1926732). Earlier to this share swap, Cytrox Holdings Zrt appears to have been the one shareholder of shares in Cytrox EMEA Ltd./Balinese and after this share swap it seems to remain the one shareholder in Cytrox Software program program Ltd./Peterbald. Further, an article from Intelligence On-line in 2017 notes that WiSpear Packages is “owned by Aliada Group Inc.”

Knowledge on Aliada Group Inc. is relatively scant. The an identical 2017 article from Intelligence On-line notes that Aliada Group Inc. is “backed by the private equity company Mivtach-Shamir, which spent $3.5 million to amass a 32% stake in Aliada in December 2016, along with an option to amass an additional 5%.” Mivtach-Shamir is “a publicly-traded Israeli funding agency” primarily based by Meir Shamir. In reviewing entries for WiSpear/Passitora Ltd. in Cyprus’ enterprise registry, we well-known that “Mivtah Shamir Utilized sciences (2000) Ltd.” is listed as a director of Passitora Ltd., along with Dilian. We moreover found an entry inside the Israeli enterprise registry for a “Mivtach Shamir Utilized sciences (2000) Ltd.,” which was apparently built-in in 2000.

Further, a 2020 Haaretz article well-known that Avi Rubinstein, a “high-tech entrepreneur, filed a lawsuit in direction of Dilian in Tel Aviv District Court docket docket.”

In accordance with Haaretz, Aliada Group Inc. is described inside the litigation as “a gaggle of cyberweapon corporations whose merchandise are branded beneath the determine Intellexa.” Two totally different folks, Oz Liv, who was moreover a commander in Unit 81, and Meir Shamir, are moreover named as defendants. In accordance with Haaretz, these two folks, along with Rubinstein, who filed the go nicely with, and Dilian, are all shareholders in Aliada Group Inc.

Haaretz further notes that Rubinstein is accusing Dilian, Liv, and Shamir of performing “illegally to dilute [Rubinstein’s] private shares by the use of a pyramid of corporations organize overseas. A number of of those corporations have been established by means of entrance males linked to Dilian, collectively together with his second partner, Sara Hamou” (as well-known above, Hamou’s determine appears in firm registry listings inside the Dun & Bradstreet database for Intellexa entities in Ireland and Greece). The lawsuit moreover reportedly claimed that “this swap of Aliada’s actions out of Israel by means of shell corporations, first to the British Virgin Islands and later Ireland, violated every Israeli and worldwide safety export administration authorized tips.”

In accordance with the BVI Registrar of Firm Affairs, as of the date of publication of this report, Aliada Group Inc.’s approved standing is “in penalty” on account of nonpayment of annual costs. In addition to, the registered agent filed an intent to resign on November 12, 2021. The reason for the resignation is as however unclear.

Intellexa’s Merchandise

prior mannequin of the Intellexa website markets “intelligence choices” along with “tactical interception.” The promoting of interception was moreover underscored in Dilian’s 2019 Forbes interview. Nonetheless, on the time of writing, the website is considerably further imprecise regarding the agency’s actions. In its current kind, Intellexa’s website and associated films pitch a product often known as “Nebula” which is described as a ‘holistic’ intelligence gathering and analysis platform.

Decide 3: Textual content material from the Intellexa website at time of writing.

The company’s website prominently choices the declare that it is “EU-based and managed.” This declare is attention-grabbing given the monitor report of some of Intellexa’s participating firm entities, which have been riddled with approved factors and totally different controversy. For example, in June 2021, executives of Amesys and Nexa Utilized sciences have been indicted by investigating judges with the crimes in direction of humanity and warfare crimes unit of the Paris Judicial Court docket docket for complicity in torture in relation to product product sales to the Libyan authorities and complicity in torture and compelled dissapearance in relation to product product sales to the Egyptian authorities.

Dilian has moreover been adopted by tales of approved and totally different irregularities, every all through his time inside the Israeli navy and in his new career as a mercenary surveillance tech vendor. In 2019, after courting publicity with an illustration to Forbes of a “$9 million indicators intelligence van” with communications hacking capabilities in Cyprus, WiSpear and Tal Dilian attracted police curiosity. The van was confiscated by Cypriot authorities, various WiSpear/Passitora Ltd. employees have been arrested and briefly detained, and Dilian was wished for questioning.

In accordance with a 2020 Reuters article Dilian—who characterised the Cypriot investigation as a “witch hunt” in direction of him—fled Cyprus after an arrest warrant was issued in his determine. An article in CyprusMail from November 2021 notes that the Authorized professional-Fundamental’s office decided to “drop all charges” in direction of all three folks involved inside the “spy van” case (the case in direction of WiSpear/Passitora Ltd. was not dropped). Reporting from the an identical month notes that WiSpear was fined just about 1 million Euros for privateness violations.

2. Assaults in direction of the Two Targets

Nour first grew to turn out to be suspicious after observing that his iPhone was “working scorching.” We found of Nour’s case and reviewed logs from his cellphone. Lastly, we determined that his gadget had been exploited and contaminated with two separate mercenary adware devices: Pegasus adware, made by NSO Group, and Predator, which is developed by Cytrox.

We attribute the assaults on the two targets to the Egyptian Authorities with medium-high confidence. We carried out scanning (Half 4) that acknowledged the Egyptian Authorities as a Cytrox Predator purchaser, websites used inside the hacks of the two targets bore Egyptian themes, and the messages that initiated the hack have been despatched from Egyptian WhatsApp numbers (Half 2.5, Half 2.7).

2.1. Confirming NSO Pegasus An an infection of Ayman Nour

The logs confirmed that Nour’s cellphone had been repeatedly compromised with NSO Group’s Pegasus adware since March 3, 2021. For example, proof of execution of the following processes was acknowledged on Nour’s cellphone, relationship once more to March 3, 2021:

These course of names all appear on a listing of Pegasus indicators revealed by Amnesty Tech and we have moreover independently linked them to Pegasus. Crash logs moreover confirmed that on June 30, 2021, NSO Group’s FORCEDENTRY exploit (CVE-2021-30860) was fired on the cellphone. The exploit did not result in arrange of the Pegasus adware presently.

Primarily based totally on the traces of FORCEDENTRY, the presence in fact of names linked to Pegasus, and further components, we conclude with extreme confidence that the cellphone was repeatedly hacked with NSO Group’s Pegasus adware starting on March 3, 2021.

2.2. Confirming Cytrox Predator An an infection of Ayman Nour

After confirming forensic traces of Pegasus on Nour’s iPhone, we acknowledged the presence of additional adware, which we attribute with extreme confidence to Cytrox. We further conclude with extreme confidence that it is unrelated to Pegasus adware.

Whereas analyzing the iPhone logs we determined that, on June 30, 2021, two directions “/Payload2” have been engaged on the cellphone (PIDs 339 and 1272), and that these directions had been launched with a single argument, a URL on distedc[.]com. The directions have been working as root.

Decide 4: Itemizing of directions engaged on Nour’s cellphone.

iPhone logs indicated that the tactic names of the directions have been UserEventAgent and, that their binaries have been resident on disk inside the /private/var/tmp/ folder, and that the accountable course of for every was siriactionsd, which is a dependable iOS course of that manages iOS shortcuts and automations.

Phone logs showing process names of the commands, and paths to binaries on disk.
Decide 5: Cellphone logs exhibiting course of names of the directions, and paths to binaries on disk.

Whereas iOS has dependable binaries with the names “” and “UserEventAgent”, the binaries in Figures 5 do not match any acknowledged dependable Apple mannequin. Moreover, the dependable iOS binaries with these names are often not saved in /private/var/tmp/. The two suspicious processes have been working as part of the “” launchd coalition. We found two further suspicious processes that had not too way back run on this an identical coalition, named “hooker” and “takePhoto”.

2.3. Attribution to Cytrox

We appeared up the IP take care of for distedc[.]com on Net scanning service Censys and positioned that, as of October 2021, it returned an HTTP 302 redirect to Concluding that this could possibly be an determining habits, we constructed a Censys fingerprint for the redirect.

We found 28 hosts on Censys matching this fingerprint in October 2021, along with an IP in Northern Macedonia, 62.162.5[.]58, which was pointed to by dev-bh.cytrox[.]com in August 2020, and which moreover returned a redirect with dev-bh.cytrox[.]com in its Location header on port 80 all through this period.

Furthermore, passive DNS instrument RiskIQ reveals that the IP 62.162.5[.]58 returned a certificates (0fb1b8da5f2e63da70b0ab3bba8438f30708282f) for teslal[.]xyz between July 2020 and September 2020. Since 62.162.5[.]58 presently returns a teslal[.]xyz certificates, we assume that the IP has not modified possession since August 2020 and is thus nonetheless related to cytrox[.]com.

Decide 6: Cytrox WordPress net web page from 2019, after apparent hacking and the place of an SEO-link for a web-based on line on line casino.

The space beforehand returned a WordPress net web page containing an electronic message take care of (, which appears to be the e-mail of Ivo Malinkovski, CEO of Cytrox. The WordPress net web page is seemingly unmaintained, and was apparently hacked to include spam hyperlinks to a web-based on line on line casino (Decide 6).

We analyzed binaries associated to the adware (Half 3), which revealed that the adware is named “Predator.” We carried out further fingerprinting and scanning (Half 4) that allowed us to find out further elements of Cytrox shopper infrastructure.

2.4. Assertion of Additional Domains

Together with distedc[.]com, we observed further domains associated to the Predator arrange on the two sufferer telephones.

Space The place Seen
distedc[.]com As argument to working Predator course of in system logs; in iOS automation for Predator persistence
gosokm[.]com iOS system logs for working Predator processes confirmed data exfiltration proper right here
youtubesyncapi[.]combity[.]ws Predator configuration echoed to system logs
egyqaz[.]com Inside Android Predator sample downloaded from distedc[.]com; Safari historic previous of compromised gadget
almasryelyuom[.]comqwxzyl[.]com Safari historic previous of compromised gadget timestamped ~1ms sooner than egyqaz[.]com

Desk 1: Domains observed in Predator adware used to hack Egyptian targets.

2.5. How Ayman Nour was Hacked with Predator

We searched Nour’s cellphone for these domains and positioned that an Egyptian amount on WhatsApp (+201201407978), purporting to be a “Dr. Rania Shhab,” despatched 4 distinct hyperlinks to almasryelyuom[.]com and qwxzyl[.]com to Nour’s gadget. The hyperlinks have been despatched as footage containing URLs. The an identical WhatsApp account despatched a hyperlink to youtu-be[.]net, which we assess may be related, on account of the server response for youtu-be[.]net matches that of almasryelyuom[.]com and qwxzyl[.]com.

The subsequent are examples of images accompanying the hyperlinks despatched by the attacker, extracted from Nour’s cellphone:

Decide 7: An image accompanying a Cytrox Predator hyperlink despatched to Nour reads: “Turkey asks the Egyptian opposition channels to stop criticizing Egypt, and Cairo suggestions on the switch…”


Decide 8: An image accompanying a Cytrox Predator hyperlink despatched to Nour reads: “The second a automotive fell from the best of the [6th] October Bridge in Ramses.”
Decide 9: An image accompanying a Cytrox Predator hyperlink despatched to Nour purports to be a hyperlink to the dependable website of the Al Masry Al Youm newspaper. The exact hyperlink goes to a fake lookalike space, almasryelyuom[.]com.


Decide 10: An image accompanying a Cytrox Predator hyperlink despatched to Nour reads: “Breaking data.. Alexandria put together accident instantly. Full particulars…”

2.6. Proof of Predator and Pegasus Working Concurrently

Cellphone logs level out that on June 22, 2021, Pegasus and Predator have been working concurrently on Nour’s cellphone, as these 4 processes have been observed working concurrently:

PID Course of Adware
4219 /private/var/db/ Pegasus
4257 /private/var/db/ Pegasus
4265 /private/var/tmp/UserEventAgent Predator
4412 /private/var/tmp/ Predator

Desk 2: Pegasus and Predator processes working concurrently on Nour’s cellphone on June 22, 2021.

The cellphone logs level out that the gadget was contaminated with Pegasus on June 22 at 13:26 GMT. Quite a few Library/SMS/Attachments folders have been created between 13:17 and 13:21, and there have been no entries in any approach inside the Attachments desk of the sms.db file for June 22, suggesting {{that a}} zero-click exploit might have been the vector for Pegasus arrange. Roughly an hour later, a Predator hyperlink despatched to Nour on WhatsApp was opened in Safari at 14:33 GMT on the an identical day and Predator was put in on the gadget two minutes later at 14:35 GMT.

2.7. How Second Aim was Hacked with Predator

The second objective, an Egyptian journalist in exile who’s the host of a most popular data program, obtained one message on WhatsApp from an unknown amount (+201201407595) with a hyperlink to the an identical almasryelyuom[.]com website.

Decide 11: Second objective is targeted with Predator.

The one who despatched the hyperlink claimed that they’ve been an Assistant Editor on the Al Masry Al Youm newspaper.

3. Analysis of Cytrox’s Predator Adware

We obtained Android and iOS payloads from distedc[.]com and positioned them to be copies of a loader for a adware product often known as Predator. We think about that these payloads are invoked by a earlier exploit part that we should not have.

3.1. Initialization

The iPhone executable is a 64-bit Mach-O binary which, like its Android counterpart, expects two arguments when the binary’s predominant function often known as, which appear to be a kernel course of course of port and a pid price. The predominant function then calls kmem_init with these values, which proceeds to permit Predator stage 1 for continued execution. The Android sample passes its arguments to shared constants SHMEMFD_VSS and SHMEMFD_VSS.

Every the iOS and Android samples then identify a startPy function to load a bundled Python 2.7 runtime. Throughout the iOS sample, two further built-in objects are added to the runtime: predutils and predconfig. The Android sample accommodates further further built-in objects: injector, pc2, recorder, and voip_recorder. Upon initialization, startPy lots of a frozen Python module named loader which begins by importing the Predator config from the interpreter’s predconfig module.

The iOS and Android configurations are barely completely totally different. The entire configurations may be present in Appendix 1. As quickly as Predator iOS lots of its configuration, it lots of one different frozen Python module named km_ios, a utility module that offers kernel memory administration helper options enabling further Predator module capabilities.

The iOS payload moreover accommodates a _check function, which queries the cellphone amount and the cellphone’s current locale nation code. If the locale nation code is identical as “IL” (the nation code for Israel), or the cellphone amount begins with “+972” (the cellphone nation code for Israel) then the adware terminates. Nonetheless, the tactic that Predator makes use of to query the cellphone amount, CTSettingCopyMyPhoneNumber, couldn’t work in newest variations of iOS. We could not resolve how (or if) the _check function often known as.

3.2. Python Loader

Together with the frozen loader module, “src/” (“frozenpyc/src/” inside the Android sample), we moreover found copies of what appear to be older variations of the module that do not appear to be invoked by Predator: “src/”, “src/” and “src/loaderBackup03”. All of the loader variations embrace various references to “Predator.”

Decide 12: An excerpt of code from the loader module that mentions “Predator.”

After loading the Predator configuration, the iOS loader then wipes the gadget’s crash logs by eradicating all recordsdata in “/private/var/mobile/Library/Logs/CrashReporter/”. Then, it downloads a configuration file and further phases of the adware from the server (specified by predconfig’s INS_URL parameter, which is able to https://bity[.]ws).

Decide 13: Predator on iOS wipes the crash logs.

On Android, the loader module moreover downloads further recordsdata from the server (specified by predconfig’s INS_URL parameter, which is able to https://egyqaz[.]com).

3.3. Persistence on iOS

On iOS, the loader calls a get_configuration_persistency function, which downloads an iOS shortcuts automation from the adware server to verify persistence. The persistent payload is named “Nahum,” which is the determine of a minor biblical prophet. Nahum’s prophecy appears inside the Hebrew Tanakh and the Christian Earlier Testament, and foretells the entire destruction of Nineveh, a sturdy fortress metropolis.

Nineveh is destroyed, deserted, desolate! Hearts soften with fear; knees tremble, power is gone; faces develop pale. The place now’s the city that was like a den of lions, the place the place youthful lions have been fed, the place the lion and the lioness would go and their cubs could possibly be protected?

Nahum 2:10-11 GNB

The iOS automation is triggered when certain apps are opened, along with various built-in Apple apps, such as a result of the App Retailer, Digicam, Mail, Maps, Safari, along with third-party apps along with Twitter, Instagram, Fb Messenger, LinkedIn, Skype, SnapChat, Viber, Wire, TikTok, Line, OpenVPN, WhatsApp, Signal, and Telegram.

Decide 14: Automation on Aim 2’s contaminated gadget as seen inside the “Automations” tab of the “Shortcuts” app.

The automation first checks if the cellphone’s battery stage is bigger than 9% (i.e., if the cellphone is not going to be in a low-battery state of affairs). If the cellphone’s battery stage is sufficient, then the automation downloads JavaScript code from the adware server and substitutes this code proper right into a block of HTML contained inside the shortcut. We have now been unable to amass this JavaScript code. The HTML inside the shortcut moreover accommodates a JavaScript function “make_bogus_transform” which appears to create an XSLT transformation that could possibly be invoked by the downloaded JavaScript code. The HTML code with the substituted JavaScript is then Base64-encoded, its contents are prepended with “data:textual content material/html,” after which the automation passes this URL to WebKit to render. This presumably triggers the exploit and results in the arrange of the Predator adware.

Whereas automations often set off seen notifications after they’re run, the Predator shortcut runs solely inside the background, invisible to the patron, on account of Predator moreover modifications an option to disable automations from triggering notifications.

The get_configuration_persistency function moreover downloads an iOS profile named “com.[name redacted].disable-shortcuts-notifications”, from the adware server.

We positioned a profile with the an identical determine publicly launched by [name redacted], a software program program engineering pupil. We’re redacting the determine of the scholar proper right here on account of we do not think about they’re involved in Cytrox Predator enchancment. The profile’s sole function is to forestall iOS from displaying notifications when an automation is run. Thus, prospects who’ve been hacked with Predator do not see notifications when the adware is launched.

Decide 15: Profile to disable automations notifications utilized by Predator.

There’s nothing considerably specific or superior about this specific profile, and Predator’s builders might have merely crafted their very personal associated profile that duplicated this efficiency with out mentioning the software program program engineering pupil by determine.

The get_configuration_persistency function moreover downloads binaries often known as “takePhoto,” “agent.dylib,” “inject,” and “hooker” on iOS14, nonetheless does not get hold of these recordsdata on iOS13, in its place logging the message “iOS 13, don’t need hooker.” We did not obtain these recordsdata, nonetheless we think about that “hooker” and “takePhoto” are the an identical binaries we observed working in Half 2.2.

3.4. Additional Android Particulars

We did not uncover a mechanism for persistence on Android, nor values inside the Android configuration file that time out persistence assist. Nonetheless, we found some further code inside the Android sample, along with code to disable SELinux and code for an audio recording ingredient.

Predator retailers further Python modules and native ELF binaries inside the fs.db SQLite file which is positioned on the trail set in DB_FILE. The Python interpreter has a frozen module often known as sqlimper which is liable for interacting with this database. The database accommodates a desk often known as recordsdata which has a column often known as file_hash and a column often known as file_data. The file_hash is used reasonably than a file determine and is computed using the following routine, the place n is the determine:

The injector module declares one function, inject, which can inject a shared object proper right into a working course of. Curiously, there is a function often known as earlier to injection which makes an try to disable SELinux enforcement by means of the SELinuxFS.

It must be well-known that this methodology seemingly shouldn’t be going to succeed on devices which have further checks and protections spherical SELinux enforcement—for example, Samsung RKP. Nonetheless, there are artifacts associated to Predator that suggest approaches like RKP may be defeated by stomping on the SELinux entry vector cache entries to grant the needed permissions.

The pc2 module accommodates a single function, pc2_send_command, that is used as an IPC mechanism to ship directions to Predator’s audio recording ingredient. The supported directions are START_VOIP, STOP_VOIP, START_MICRORECORDER, STOP_MICRORECORDER, and POLL_VOIP. This module works along with the recorder and voip_recorder modules. Each of the recorder modules have a start and stop function which might be used to start/stop Predator’s scorching mic (recorder) and identify recording (voip_recorder) capabilities. Recordings are saved in /data/native/tmp/wd/r/ in MP3 format.

4. Scanning to Uncover Cytrox Shoppers

We fingerprinted the habits of the domains from Desk 1 and positioned further domains by means of Shodan and Censys.

Domains Fingerprint


egyqaz[.]com [ShodanCensys]
distedc[.]com [ShodanCensys]
gosokm[.]com [ShodanCensys]
youtubesyncapi[.]combity[.]ws [ShodanCensys]

Desk 3: Shodan and Censys fingerprints for Cytrox domains.

Of the Shodan and Censys outcomes, we acknowledged various servers that returned HTTP Server headers with the price “Server,” comparatively than “nginx,” These servers have been typically hosted on shopper broadband connections obtainable to native subscribers solely, comparatively than cloud-hosting corporations which may be procured internationally. We think about that the “Server: Server” IPs on shopper broadband connections are endpoint IPs that time out areas of shoppers. We found endpoint IPs inside the following worldwide places, so we conclude that these governments are seemingly amongst Cytrox’s prospects:

Armenia, Egypt, Greece, Indonesia, Madagascar, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Serbia

Scanning moreover reveals a wide range of domains utilized by Cytrox which have country-specific themes, which leads us to suspect that they could possibly be significantly targeted in relation to these worldwide places. We report a subset of these in Desk 4.

Nation Theme Cytrox Space
Egypt aramexegypt[.]comalmasryelyuom[.]com










Ivory Coast adibjan[.]webpolitique-koaci[.]data
Madagascar tribune-mg[.]xyz
Mali actumali[.]org
Saudi Arabia niceonase[.]comniceonesa[.]net
Serbia novosti[.]bidpolitika[.]bid
Trinidad & Tobago forwardeshoptt[.]comguardian-tt[.]me

Desk 4: Some Cytrox Predator domains indicating nation themes.

We furthermore acknowledged further domains impersonating widespread corporations and on-line web sites (Desk 5).

Genuine Service Cytrox Space
Apple applepps[.]com
Fox Info ffoxnewz[.]com
Google Play Retailer playestore[.]net
Instagram instegram[.]co
LinkedIn lnkedin[.]org
Sephora sephoragroup[.]com
Tesla Motors teslal[.]storeteslal[.]xyz
Twitter twtter[.]webtw.itter[.]me
WhatsApp wha.tsapp[.]me
XNXX xnxx-hub[.]com
YouTube youtu-be[.]webyoutub[.]app


Desk 5: Some Cytrox Predator domains impersonating dependable corporations or websites.

Specific Phrase: Predator after Pegasus for Saudi Arabia?

An IP take care of in Saudi Arabia appears to have begun matching our Cytrox Predator fingerprints on the end of July 2021, and we classify this IP take care of as that of a possible Predator purchaser. NSO Group’s June 30, 2021 transparency report mentions that NSO decrease off a shopper, later reported to be Saudi Arabia by the New York Cases, apparently in response to the revelations of spying on Al Jazeera journalists. This generally is a signal that Saudi Arabia has switched from Pegasus to Predator.

5. Disclosure & Enforcement

In accordance with the Citizen Lab’s vulnerability disclosure protection, we shared copies of Cytrox Predator forensic artifacts with Apple, which has confirmed to the Citizen Lab that they are investigating. In addition to, given the abuse of WhatsApp for Predator concentrating on, the Citizen Lab shared forensic artifacts with Meta’s security workers.

Proper now, Thursday, December sixteenth, Meta is taking an enforcement movement in direction of Cytrox, which contains eradicating roughly 300 Fb and Instagram accounts linked to Cytrox. Their investigation moreover reveals an intensive report of lookalike domains used as part of social engineering and malware assaults, which might be included in Appendix A of their report.

The Meta report states that they think about Cytrox prospects embrace entities in Egypt, Armenia, Greece, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Colombia, Côte d’Ivoire, Vietnam, Philippines, and Germany, and that they acknowledged further abusive concentrating on initiated by Cytrox prospects world huge.

6. Conclusion

This report is the first investigation to search out Cytrox’s mercenary adware being abused to concentrate on civil society. Remarkably, one in all many victims was concurrently contaminated with NSO Group’s Pegasus adware. NSO Group has obtained outsized publicity currently, due to a rising purchaser report, spiraling abuse points, and groundbreaking investigative work by civil society. Cytrox and its Predator adware, within the meantime, are comparatively unknown.

The concentrating on of a single specific individual with every Pegasus and Predator underscores that the apply of hacking civil society transcends any specific mercenary adware agency. As an alternative, it is a pattern that we rely on will persist as long as autocratic governments are ready to obtain refined hacking know-how. Absent worldwide and residential legal guidelines and safeguards, journalists, human rights defenders, and opposition groups will proceed to be hacked into the foreseeable future.

The Mercenary Adware Ecosystem

Every the Citizen Lab and Amnesty Worldwide’s Security Lab have produced intensive technical tales on NSO Group. Whereas distinguished, the mercenary adware company was not the first neither is it the one adware company of its kind whose know-how has been linked to abuse points. In precise reality, the market for offensive intrusion capabilities is very large, totally different, and proliferating internationally.

For example, earlier to the Citizen Lab’s first report on NSO Group in 2016, we documented intensive abuses of Hacking Group and FinFisher mercenary adware. (Hacking Group was subsequently rebranded Memento Labs in 2019.) In 2017, we revealed a report on the adware company, Cyberbit, whose know-how was utilized by Ethiopia to mount a worldwide cyber espionage advertising marketing campaign. We moreover discovered proof that Cyberbit was promoting its adware to acknowledged human rights abusers, along with the Royal Thai Army, the Uzbek secret corporations, Vietnam, Kazakhstan, Rwanda, Serbia, and Nigeria. Earlier this 12 months, we revealed a report on yet one more adware company, Candiru, with our findings independently corroborated by MicrosoftGoogle, and the danger intelligence workers at ESET. Candiru was subsequently designated alongside NSO Group on the U.S. Commerce Division’s “entity report” in November 2021 for “malicious cyber actions.”

As proof continues to ground of latest avid gamers inside the adware space, the an identical patterns of abuse will just about positively persist until the worldwide regulatory environment modifications.

Constructions to Steer clear of Accountability

The private intelligence and mercenary surveillance market is marked by superior possession constructions, firm alliances, and customary rebranding. These practices frustrate investigation, regulation, and accountability. Mercenary adware corporations further evade outdoor scrutiny by utilizing superior accounting and incorporation methods acquainted to those utilized by arms traffickers, money launderers, kleptocrats, and corrupt officers.

As investigative journalists and public curiosity researchers proceed to position a spotlight on mercenary adware corporations, we rely on they will proceed their efforts to evade scrutiny and accountability.


Due to to M.S. and Ayman Nour. Citizen Lab investigations depend on victims and targets graciously sharing proof with us.

Due to Meta for investigating this case following our notification and taking enforcement actions, and to Apple.

Due to TNG.

Due to Amnesty Tech for sharing further WHOIS particulars pointing to Intellexa.

Due to Group Cymru.

Appendix 1: Predator Configurations

Android Configuration:

FS_ENDPOINT heh URL ingredient when downloading further sources
INS_URL https[:]//egyqaz[.]com/ Base URL when downloading further sources
FIN_URL https[:]//egyqaz[.]com/{}/vmq
RSA_PKEY <an RSA public key>
P_DIR /data/native/tmp/wd/ Path to Predator working itemizing
DB_FILE /data/native/tmp/wd/fs.db Path to SQLite database that accommodates further devices and Python modules
PE_METHOD QUAILEGGS The privilege escalation methodology to utilize
INS_CERT <an x509 cert>
LIBPYTHON_GIT_COMMIT 2b2f6c3 Git commit hash of the mission
FS_KEY <redacted> Key used to encrypt SQLite database

iOS Configuration:

Config Key Config Price Notes
PERSIST_FLAG persistflag Persistence boolean toggle
PERSIST https[:]//youtubesyncapi[.]com/ Persistence space endpoint
PERSIST_ID PI112233445566778899EEEEEEDDEEFF Persistence identifier
INS_URL https[:]//bity[.]ws Base URL when downloading further sources
INP_URL http[:]//192.168.2[.]1[:]8080
FIN_URL https[:]//bity[.]ws/{}/finish
RSA_PKEY <an RSA public key>
P_DIR /private/var/logs/keybagd/ Path to Predator working itemizing
DB_FILE /private/var/logs/keybagd/fs.db Path to SQLite database that accommodates further devices and Python modules
ENC_FILE /private/var/logs/keybagd/arm64e.encrypted
SHORT_FILE /private/var/logs/keybagd/Shortcuts.realm Shortcuts persistence file
SHORT_FILE_LOCK /private/var/logs/keybagd/Shortcuts.realm.lock
JS_FILE /private/var/logs/keybagd/jsPayload.js.encrypted
JS_KEY_FILE /private/var/logs/keybagd/jskey.txt
PRED_KEY_FILE /private/var/logs/keybagd/predkey.txt
PE_METHOD NWIOS The privilege escalation methodology to utilize
INS_CERT <an x509 cert>
LIBPYTHON_GIT_COMMIT unknown Git commit hash of the mission
FS_KEY TEST Key used to encrypt SQLite database
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